Issue 1.2 : Dry Eyes, Volume 1: Ocular Surface Diseases

Reference Articles – Dry Eyes

Authors: Gunjan Saluja MD (AIMS, India), Deepali Singhal MD (AIMS, India), Sameera Irfan, FRCS.

A list of current reference articles regarding an up-to-date management of the Dry eye Disease are given below for further reading.

1: JP Craig. TFOS DEWS II Report Executive Summary – Tear Film & Ocular … › public › TFOSDEWSII-Executive. 2017 -Aug 4, 2017 –

The TFOS DEWS II report, published in the July 2017 issue of “The Ocular Surface”. In this article, the Definition, Classification, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management protocol are discussed.

2: Lyndon Jones, Laura E. Downie, Donald Korb, Jose M. Benitez-del-Castillo, Reza Dana, Sophie X. Deng, Pham N. Dong et al TFOS DEWS II Management and Therapy Report, The Ocular Surface 15, (2017 ), 575-628.

In this review article, the various management options for dry eye disease are discussed in detail.

3: James S. Wolffsohn, Reiko Arita, Robin Chalmers, Ali Djalilian, Murat Dogru, Kathy Dumbleton, Preeya K. Gupta, Paul Karpecki, Sihem Lazreg, TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology Report, The Ocular Surface, xxx (2017) 544-579.

A detailed description of various tests for the diagnosis and monitoring dry eye disease are discussed in this review article.

4: Sameera Irfan. Is Benign Essential Blepharospasm a “BENIGN” & or an “ESSENTIAL” Condition ?. Major Review Paper.The American Journal of Cosmetic Surgery. 2018, Vol. 35(2) 83–91.

  • hDtOI10.1177/0488/

In this review paper, the author discusses how severe dry eyes over 1-2 years period results in Blepharospasm, which is associated with extreme visual morbidity and a very disturbed quality of life. A comprehensive therapy of dry eyes and the patient as a whole cures the patients of this debilitating illness.

5: Samir S. Shoughy Topical tacrolimus in anterior segment inflammatory disorders. Eye and Vision, volume 4, Article number: 7 (2017)

A detailed description of mechanism of action of topical tacrolimus as a promising drug for treating T cell mediated anterior segment ocular diseases. The most common side effect noted was a mild and transient ocular irritation. Burning sensation may occur upon drop instillation but usually does not necessitate discontinuation of treatment.

6: Moscovici BK1, Holzchuh R, Chiacchio BB, Santo RM, Shimazaki J, Hida RY.Clinical treatment of dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops. Cornea. 2012 Aug;31(8):945-9. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e31823f8c9b.

In this paper, the results of Tacrolimus therapy in patients with Sjögren syndrome dry eyes are discussed. The average break-up time did not improve statistically after 14 days of treatment, but a significant improvement was noted after 28 and 90 days of treatment with 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops twice daily.

7: Irfan S and Qurban T. Ophthalmic uses of cyclosporin eyedrops. F1000Research 2016, 5:1941 (poster) (doi: 10.7490/f1000research.1112798.1)

In this poster, the author presents the clinical indications and method of preparation of Cyclosporin eyedrops in various concentrations.

8: Kunert KS, Tisdale AS, Stern ME, et al. Analysis of topical cyclosporine treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome: effect on conjunctival lymphocytes. Arch Ophthalmol 2000; 118: 1489-96.

The study analyses the effect of topical cyclosporine, 0.05% in patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndromes, and found that cyclosporine reduces the number of activated lymphocytes and inflammatory mediators in the conjunctiva.

9: Perry HD, Solomon R, Donnenfeld ED, et al. Evaluation of topical cyclosporine for the treatment of dry eye disease. Arch Ophthalmol 2008; 126: 1046-50.

The study evaluated the role of cyclosporine for the treatment of dry eye, and found that cyclosporine is effective in all forms of dry eye, in cases of mild dry eye disease, it causes maximum relief in symptoms and in mild cases, maximum improvement in signs is seen in severe cases.

10: Schmidl D, Werkmeister R, Kaya S, Unterhuber A, Witkowska KJ, Baumgartner R, Höller S. A Controlled, Randomized Double-Blind Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Chitosan-N-Acetylcysteine for the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Jun;33(5):375-382.

The study evaluated the role of N- acetyl cysteine, in the treatment of dry eye disease, and found it to be effective in increasing the tear film thickness, thus making it a viable option for management of dry eye disease.

11: All India Ophthalmology Society, Dry eye Preferred Practice Patterns, 2013, Dr. Samar Basak


The first series of preferred practice patterns in dry eye by AIOS, very well summarizes the dry eye, beginning from its definition, etiologies, pathogenesis, the series also covers the various management options for dry eye disease.

12: Geerling G, Maclennan S, Hartwig D. Autologous serum eye drops for ocular surface disorders. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 Nov;88(11):1467-74.


This review article discusses the use of autologous serum drop, its preparation techniques and the potential problems and complications associated with its use.

13: Sharma N, Thenarasun SA, Kaur M, Pushker N, Khanna N, Agarwal T, Vajpayee RB. Adjuvant Role of Amniotic Membrane Transplantation in Acute Ocular Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: A Randomized Control Trial. Ophthalmology. 2016 Mar;123(3):484-91.

The prospective randomized controlled trial, evaluates the role of amniotic membrane transplant in cases of acute Stevens Johnson syndrome.

14: Sharma N, Venugopal R, Maharana PK, Chaniyara M, Agarwal T, Pushker N, Pandey RM, Sangwan S, Sen S, Kashyap S, Sharma A, Khanna N, Vajpayee RB. Multi-Step Grading System for Evaluation of Chronic Ocular Sequelae in Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2019 Feb 4.

This new multistep scoring system for chronic ocular features of Steven Johnson syndrome is a useful tool for evaluating the efficacy of surgical intervention.

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